… and here are some pictures and maps to help with visualisation. Also, look at this Achaemenid Daric (Achaemenid gold coin) which is very close to the Lydian prototype.
This episode will explain the local (mainly Anshanite) context for the rise of Cyrus, as well as telling a bit about the version of the story of the birth of Cyrus told by Herodotus.
1- Cyrus’ genealogy:
- Cyrus’ name is written as Kurush (II) son of Kambujia (Cambyses I) son of Kurush (I) son of Chish-pish (Tespes).
- He is said to be the son of Mandane (daughter of Astyages of Media) by Herodotus.
2- Here is a useful article on the site of Malyan/Malian (ancient Anshan) and the archaeological excavations of it.
3- Another article on the description of Cyrus as presented in Herodotus’ History.
Finally we arrive at the tale of Cyrus, what you have all been waiting for. Get the episode from here…
This is the introduction to the history of Cyrus, looking at the world in which he started his career. I go from the Mediterranean to China and back to Mesopotamia, surveying the Eurasian world in 550 BCE or so, as well as making some preliminary remarks about Cyrus himself.
Check out the Bibliography for items added for this subject.
You can download the new episode form this link…
As usual, the feed is here.
Names of the characters mentioned
Dioces: the “founder” of the Median Empire according to Herodotus (possibly inspired by the Mannean Diakku, mentioned in Assyrian annales)
Phraortes: his son, possibly the chief Kashtariti mentioned in the chronicle of Essarhaddon
Cyaxares: the greatest of the Median kings, according to Herodotus, and the “conqueror” of Assyria. Possibly Umakishtar who is mentioned in the Gadd Chronicle and said by the Babylonian chronicles to be the person who sacked Assur/Ashur.
Astyages: the last of the Median Emperors, possibly Ishtumigu of the Babylonian chronicles.
Medes are on their way…
This episode goes back to the Elamites and their adventures with the Neo-Assyrians, and their murky last century.
This, sort of, is just the beginning. The Indo-European, the Aryan, and the Indo-Iranian languages and terms are such thorny issues, and I cannot even pretend to have answered them all. Hopefully this will set the stage for future discussions, and some questions, comments, and discussions here.
Notice that I tend to spell the word Ariia in order to name the “Indo-Iranians” as they are, and to distinguish it from the Aryan, which is used in a modern, political sense.
Check out the Bibliography for some book and article suggestions…
If you are interested to know a little more about the people I talked about in episode 6, please follow these links:
The Lullubi: an article from Encylopaedia Iranica. Some images of the relief of Anubanini at Sar-e Pol-e Zahab. If you have a sense of humour, then read my attempt at being funny with the Lullubi, which I published a few years ago online!
The Gutians: the entry on Gutians from the EIr. Gutian Sumer, in digested form! You’ll see what I mean about people deciding how folk looked 4,000 years ago when you read this, arguing for a ‘Black’ origin of the Sumerians, or this one which has decided that they were Caucasian. This ‘Kurdish argument‘ is not actually half-bad in camparison…
I am stopping our chronological progression to talk a bit about the people we have been concerned with. I am going through a list of the civilisations, cultures, and languages of western Iran. We know of most of these through Assyrian and Sumerian, and occasionally Babylonian sources. I will talk a bit more about the Elamite culture, the Kassites and the Gutians, the Lullubi, and finally the Manneans. This will set up the scene for the whole “Indo-Iranian” migration story which seems to be overshadowing so much of early Iranian history.
I talk about the Loristan Bronzes in this episode. Here is an example of a couple of anthropomorphic horses from the BM. They are very common, so much so that you can even buy some of them on the Ebay! (I STRONGLY discourage you from doing this. Do NOT encourage looters and dealers!).
— This is episode three, out after some mishaps… Download/Stream it from here
— I promised a list of terms and names I was using, so here they are.
Chalcolithic = the so-called “copper” age, or the coper-stone period
Elam = The civilisation I talked about the most, and will continue talking about for the next episode
Tepe Sialk = Archaeological site in central-northern part of the plateau
Tepe Hissar= Archaeological site on the northeast of the Iranian Plateau
Shahr-e Sukhte = the Burnt City, site on the east side of the plateau, by the Helmand River
Sargon of Agade = the first king of the Empire of Agade/Akkad (2332 BCE).
Gutians and Lulubians = mountain tribes/confederations to the north of Elam
Jiroft = archaeological side on the central eastern part of the plateau
Naram-Sin= Grandson of Sargon
Ur-Namma (2112-2095) = the founder of the Third Dynasty of Ur
Puzur Inshushinak = contemporary of Ur-Namma, king of Awan, the first Elamite ever mentioned
Shimashki= the dominant city of Elam after 2004 BC
Sukkalmah=the title of the “governor” of Elam under Larsa’s dominance; later the most powerful rulers in the region
Gungunum of Larsa (1932-1906) = the founder of the dynasty of Larsa
And here is a map (note that Malyan is Anshan!)